41st International Vienna Motor Symposium
Technical Evaluation and Life Cycle Assessment of Potential Long Haul Heavy Duty Vehicles for the Year 2050
Dipl.-Ing. A. Lozanovski, A. Geß MSc, University of Stuttgart;
Dipl.-Ing. O. Dingel, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) T. Semper, IAV GmbH, Chemnitz
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- Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Reihe 12, Nr. 813
In this paper, five long haul heavy duty trucks are analysed in detail for the year 2050. Two plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV), whose combustion engines are powered by different e-fuels (Fischer-Tropsch Diesel - FTD and Synthetic Natural Gas - SNG) and three electrically vehicles (EV). The latter are divided into a battery electric vehicle (BEV), a catenary (overhead line) electric vehicle (CEV) and a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV).
The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicle production are lowest for the CEV, as it has no internal combustion engine and no large battery or tanks. This is followed by the FCEV and the two PHEVs, which are in a similar range. Due to the large battery, the BEV has the highest GHG results in vehicle production. On the other hand, the BEV, together with the CEV, produces the lowest GHG emissions in vehicle operation due to the high efficiency of direct electricity use, both in energy supply (Well-to-Tank) and in energy conversion in the vehicle (Tank-to-Wheel). Taking into account future efficiencies for fuel production and consumption, SNG and FTD-PHEV cause the highest GHG emissions. The hydrogen-powered FCEV is somewhat in the middle.
The overall results depend on the GHG emissions of the electricity used for fuel production. Today's renewable electricity generation has 21.8 g CO2 eq. / kWh (EU28; storage included) and 27.4 g CO2 eq. / kWh (Middle East / North Africa). Based on these values, the CEV has the lowest GHG emissions over its entire life cycle, followed by the BEV. The FCEV is in the middle, while the PHEV have the highest GHG emissions.
At 7 g CO2 eq. / kWh electricity, BEV breaks even with FTD-PHEV. If the GHG values of electricity generation are below the break-even, e-fuel PHEVs have the same GHG balance as BEV.